10 – Walmar Castle

Walmar Castle is the most southerly of the three Henrian coastal forts which secured the Downs, that protected strait lying in between the coast and the Goodwin Sands. It stands a mile from Offer Castle, to which it was initially connected by earthworks, and was developed at the same time. Looking like Deal in concept, it is easier in style. It consists of a squat round tower carefully surrounded by a lower drape, the latter projecting outwards in four semi-circular lobes to form a quatrefoil strategy. It was a strategy shared by Sandown Castle, the northern member of the group and now almost completely ruined. Walmer Castle stands in its entirety but, in contrast to Offer and most of the other Henrician forts, it austerity has been mellowed by conversion into a stately home. In 1708, the militarily redundant castle ended up being the official residence of the Lord Warden …

10 – Wallingford Castle

The historic town of Wallingford lies within an earth rampart first thrown up in the reign of Alfred the Great or Edward the Senior citizen, as a precaution versus Danish attack. Wallingford was when believed to be a Roman town since the rampart encloses a rectangle-shaped location and the streets follow a grid pattern. The rampart can still be followed on the 3 landward sides but there is no evidence of any manufactured defenses facing the river. In the Norman duration the rampart was increased, but the town then fell under economic decline so the timber stockades that lined the summit were never changed in stone. The northeast quarter of the town enclosure became the website of Wallingford Castle. William the Conqueror crossed the Thames here in 1066, throughout his march on London, and he may have established the castle in passing. It certainly existed by 1071. This essential royal …

10 – Upnor Castle

Upnor Castle belongs to the category of Henrician cosastal forts but is an Elizabethan addition to the chain. It was started in 1599 to protect the method to the brand-new dockyard at Chatham, lying two miles away near the estuary of the River Medway. Upnor was bigger however it had to wait up until 1667 to deal with enemy action. Because year, the Dutch, under Admiral de Ruyter, cruised into the Medway and set fire to much of the English fleet. The castle was unable to use any efficient resistance and in the list below year a new chain of defenses was started, Upnor being relegated to the role of storehouse and publication. Military occupation of one kind or another continued until the Second World War. As initially developed, the castle made up an oblong blockhouse, embeded in the middle of a curious screen wall terminating at each end in …

10 – Trematon Castle

Trematon Castle bases on an eminence increasing steeply above the River Lynher, two miles southwest of Saltash and the Tamar estuary. Robert, Count of Mortain and Earl of Cornwall most likely established the castle. It is described as his in the Domesday Book. At that time Trematon was a location of some value whereas now it is scarcely a town. The castle saw action in the Civil War and, previously, in the course of Kilter’s Insurrection which broke out in Cornwall in 1594. The rebels laid siege to the castle and managed to entice out and record its protector, Sir Richard Grenville. Trematon is a great example of a motte and bailey castle. It is a lot more significant for the excellent conservation of its late Norman masonry, probably the work of Henry de Dunstanville. An oval shell keep crowns the motte and a plain drape surrounds the bailey. Both …

10 – Tower of London

The Tower of London and Dover Castle were the greatest castles of medieval England. There are those who would put Dover first and London second, but this is a matter of choice. Both castle maintain their majesty in spite of extensive later mutilation. It needs to be confessed that Dover maximizes its glorious position; whereas the Tower derives no benefits from its website. Squatting on the north bank of the Thames, and now overshadowed by the glass skyscrapers of the City, the splendour of the complex is not right away evident. Nevertheless, its large size-eighteen acres-cannot stop working to impress and the stunning keep and concentric drapes are visible from all instructions. The prime role of the Tower was to overawe the defiant people of the capital. This may seem less tactical than Dover’s coastal defense, however English kings normally had more to fear from their own subjects than from …

10 – Tonbridge Castle

Protecting a crossing over the River Medway, the crucial castle of Tonbridge was founded by Richard Fitz Gilbert. It existed by 1088, when Rufus stormed the castle with the help of a native English army raised to quell the disobedience of Bishop Odo of Bayeux. In spite of his participation in this revolt, Fitz Gilbert retained ownership. The castle is an impressive example of a Norman motte and bailey – a design strangely enough rare in Kent. On top of the terrific motte are the lower courses of a round shell keep. The bailey curtain dates from thirteenth century, probably from the time of the earlier Gilbert de Clare or his kid, Richard. Owing to later on stone robbing, it is now extremely ruinous and none of the flanking towers make it through. The curtain is finest protected where it overlooks the river, 4 latrine chutes revealing that residential buildings …

10 – Tiverton Castle

According to custom, Richard de Redvers, Earl of Devon, first raised a castle here around 1106, but if so absolutely nothing remains of it. Hugh Courtenay constructed today fortress soon after 1300, and the quadrangular strategy is really typical of that era however would be not likely in a Norman castle. We may compare Hugh’s reconstruction of Okehampton Castle, where his work was conditioned by the old motte and bailey layout. Tiverton’s quadrangle was surrounded by a drape wall, which remains on 3 sides. There were towers at the corners but just the two southern ones stay. The southeast tower is circular and rather stunning with its later cone-shaped roof; the bigger southwest tower is square and crippling. Windows piercing the drape between them, some retaining their tracery, reveal that important structures stood here, the largest marking the website of the chapel. These windows and the relatively slight forecast of …

10 – Tintagel Castle

The legend of King Arthur has actually made Tintagel a hallowed place. Geoffrey of Monmouth, writing about the time when the castle remained in reality established, selected it as the setting for Arthur’s conception. That is his only relate to Tintagel, but it has lasted in the popular creativity. The beauty of the website is no doubt the reason why. This rocky, sea-battered headland is an uncommon setting for a middle ages castle but a likely one in which to find an ancient hill fort. It comes as a surprise to discover that no evidence has actually been discovered of any fortification before the Norman period. Instead. The headland initially became the retreat of Dark Age monks who were drawn to such inaccessible areas. The foundations of several groups of monastic buildings are spread across the top of the headland and its eastern slope. The Tintagel headland is nearly an …

10 – Thornbury Castle

The Thornbury Castle has actually been described as the last genuine castle, or rather private home with defensive functions, ever raised in England. This is most likely true if we ignore Scottish border territory. It is testimony to the ambition of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who started constructing here in 1511. Ten years later, Henry VIII had him carried out on a charge of treason. It was declared that the duke had actually raised a private army in the Welsh Marches, in defiance of the Tudor laws against such practices, and Thornbury Castle might have been another element weighing versus him. The castle follows the standard quadrangular design of later middle ages times, and is provided with an outer courtyard big enough to house a significant body of retainers. Here, as somewhere else, the worked with levies were kept away from the duke and his individual household, though whether …

1 – Tonbridge Castle

Protecting a crossing over the River Medway, the essential castle of Tonbridge was founded by Richard Fitz Gilbert. It existed by 1088, when Rufus stormed the castle with the help of a native English army raised to quell the disobedience of Bishop Odo of Bayeux. In spite of his participation in this revolt, Fitz Gilbert retained ownership. The castle is an outstanding example of a Norman motte and bailey – a layout oddly uncommon in Kent. On top of the fantastic motte are the lower courses of a round shell keep. The bailey curtain dates from thirteenth century, probably from the time of the earlier Gilbert de Clare or his boy, Richard. Owing to later on stone robbing, it is now really crippling and none of the flanking towers endure. The drape is best protected where it neglects the river, 4 latrine chutes showing that residential structures when stood here. …

1 – Tiverton Castle

According to tradition, Richard de Redvers, Earl of Devon, very first raised a castle here around 1106, but if so nothing stays of it. Hugh Courtenay constructed today stronghold not long after 1300, and the quadrangular plan is very common of that period but would be not likely in a Norman castle. We might compare Hugh’s restoration of Okehampton Castle, where his work was conditioned by the old motte and bailey layout. Tiverton’s quadrangle was surrounded by a drape wall, which remains on three sides. There were towers at the corners but just the two southern ones remain. The southeast tower is circular and rather stunning with its later cone-shaped roofing; the bigger southwest tower is square and crippling. Windows piercing the curtain in between them, some retaining their tracery, show that crucial structures stood here, the biggest marking the website of the chapel. These windows and the relatively slight …

1 – Tintagel Castle

The legend of King Arthur has made Tintagel a hallowed place. Geoffrey of Monmouth, blogging about the time when the castle was in truth established, selected it as the setting for Arthur’s conception. That is his only link with Tintagel, but it has lasted in the popular creativity. The charm of the site is no doubt the reason that. This rocky, sea-battered headland is an uncommon setting for a medieval castle but a most likely one in which to find an ancient hill fort. It comes as a surprise to find that no proof has actually been found of any fortification prior to the Norman period. Rather. The headland initially became the retreat of Dark Age monks who were drawn to such inaccessible spots. The foundations of numerous groups of monastic buildings are scattered across the top of the headland and its eastern slope. The Tintagel headland is almost an …

1 – Thornbury Castle

The Thornbury Castle has been described as the last genuine castle, or rather private house with protective features, ever raised in England. This is most likely real if we ignore Scottish border area. It is testimony to the ambition of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who began building here in 1511. Ten years later, Henry VIII had him executed on a charge of treason. It was declared that the duke had actually raised a personal army in the Welsh Marches, in defiance of the Tudor laws against such practices, and Thornbury Castle might have been another element weighing versus him. The castle follows the standard quadrangular layout of later medieval times, and is offered with an external yard large enough to house a considerable body of retainers. So here, as somewhere else, the worked with levies were avoided the duke and his individual household, though whether this plan shows skepticism …

1 – Tattershall Castle

Tattershall Castle posses among the most remarkable of later middle ages tower houses. It has justly been described as the finest piece of medieval brickwork in England. Ralph, Lord Cromwell, erected this tower in the years 1434046. Rising over a hundred feet to the top of its corner turrets, with a view stretching from Lincoln Cathedral to Boston Stump, it controls the surrounding fenland, all the more so since the rest of the castle has actually perished. There had, in fact, been a castle here because 1231m when Robert de Tattershall obtained a license to crenellate. Dam moats confine an inner bailey and a concentric platform, which is divided into two external baileys. Unfortunately, the thirteenth century curtain has actually been totally damaged though excavations have left on view the stone bases of two rounded flanking towers. The corner turrets rise well above parapet level and are rounded off with …

1 – Sudeley Castle

Sudeley Castle stands in beautiful gardens to the south east of Winchcombe. A castle here was besieged during the Anarchy however today structure is an amalgam of a late middle ages castle and an Elizabethan estate. Ralph Boteler, leader of the English fleet in Henry VI’s reign, constructed it reputedly with the ransom of a recorded French admiral. In 1458, Boteler received a pardon for crenellating Sudeley without a license, but he did not find favor with the ne Yorkist program. He was compelled to sell the castle to Edward IV, who approved it to his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucestoer, later on Richard III. Katherine Parr, Henry VIII’s widow, lived here as the spouse of Thomas Seymour. She is buried in Boteler’s chapel, which stands simply outside the castle. In the 1570s, Lord Chandos reconstructed the external yard as an approximately date mansion, and the inner courtyard was slighted …

1 – St. Mawes Castle

St. Mawes Castle protects the eastern entrance to the estuary referred to as Carrick Roads. It is the buddy of Pendennis and exactly modern. These two Henrician coastal forts offer some fascinating contrasts. In each a squat round tower is the chief feature, however instead of having a square domestic block slapped on in front of it, the St. Mawes tower is elaborated by three connected semi-circular bastions with parapets at a lower level. An unique stair turret caps the tower. St. Mawes is unlike Pendennis but like most of Henry VIII’s forts in being low lying and therefore able to challenge enemy shipping at close quarters. Both castles share Henry’s other strongholds, the rounded merlons developed to deflect cannon balls, the big embrasures for guns at a number of levels, and the emplacements for drawbridge and portcullis, the latter showing that the forts were meant to use some resistance …

1 – St. Briavels Castle

St, Briavels Castle inhabits a raised site overlooking the Wye Valley and the Welsh Border. Niles Fitz Walter, Earl of Gloucester, first developed the castle during the Anarchy, however Henry II occupied in 1160 and it remained a royal fortress thereafter. Kings, especially John, came here to hunt in the Forest of Dean. It in between times, it worked as the administrative center of the forest, which was important for iron creates, and the castle became a stone home for the innumerable crossbow bolts made there. A massive gate home controls the castle, Built by Edward I in 1292, it must have been a good example of the keep gate house style and a worthwhile counterpart to the gatehouses of Edward’s Welsh castles. The result is ruined now by the loss of the parapet, long since displaced by angled roofs, and the destruction of one side of the long gate …

1 – Southampton Castle

One of the chief ports of medieval England, Southampton preserves a wealth of medieval domestic architecture. Its flourishing Dark Age predecessor was abandoned in favor of the present website in the tenth century, and excavations have actually revealed that this new town had earth and timber defenses from the beginning, no doubt as a defense versus the Danes. Over a mile in length, the walled circuit enclosed a roughly rectangular area. It had various bastions, primarily semi-circular, and bigger towers ar the angles. Today, just the wall makes it through, along with parts of the north wall and a length near the southeast corner of the circuit. A tour of the wall may easily start at the Bargate, the northern entryway to the old town and a really enforcing one. The machicolated front is an early fifteenth century addition. Behind it are twin half-round towers a century or so older, …

1 – Sherborne Old Castle

It is so called to distinguish it from the ‘new’ castle, a fantastic estate very first constructed by Sir Walter Raleigh however much enlarged given that. Roger de Caen, Bishop of Salisbury, the most splendid prelate of his age erected the old castle. He lost his influence and possessions for supporting the Empress Matilda against King Stephen, and regardless of the demonstrations of subsequent bishops, the castle stayed in royal hands for the next two centuries. In 1592, it was leased to Sir Walter Raleigh, who began to improve the castle before deciding to erect its successor nearby. The abandoned castle was reoccupied on behalf of the King during the Civil War. It was stormed by Sir Thomas Fairfax after a two-week siege and slighted to prevent any additional military usage. Like some other Episcopal palace-fortresses of the Norman duration, Sherborne includes a residential quadrangle surrounded by a defensive outer …

1 – Saltwood Castle

Saltwood Castle is part messed up and part brought back and sits upon a hill above the old Clinque Port of Huthe. Henry de Essex, Constable of England and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, is credited with the building of the castle, a minimum of in its stone type, at some point throughout the Anarchy. The inner bailey occupies an oval ring work surrounded by a drape wall of Norman masonry. Archbishop Courtenay added the two square towers, which task from the south curtain, however 3 odd Norman towers likewise remain. They project internally like the interval towers of Roman forts, which appear to verify a date around the mid twelfth century when there was space for experimentation in such matters. The eastern tower was later adapted to form the inner part of Archbishop Courtenay’s good-looking gatehouse. The entryway from the bailey is now obstructed. This gatehouse, most likely …